The New Hackers Dictionary

“The Jargon File” of “The New Hackers Dictionary” is inmiddels cultureel erfgoed. Het bestand is publiek domein en dus gewoon vrijelijk bruikbaar. De huidige jargon-site? Die heeft regelmatig last van “web-rot”.

Waar is het te vinden? en zijn vaste bakens, maar minder handig in gebruik dan een PDF-bestand met werkende links.

Dus ik heb er een voor je gemaakt. Drie downloads:

Een aantal jaren geleden (vorige eeuw) heb ik een hack gemaakt om html om te zetten in pdf met behoud van hyperlinks onder “windoze”. Een van de meest dankbare omzettingen was the “Jargon File” AKA “The New Hacker’s Dictionary”. Het biedt veel meer dan alleen een antwoord op de vraag waarom een “hacker” goed is en een “cracker” tuig is.

Ik had hem blijkbaar een keer van het web verwijderd maar herinner mij dat het ding vaak geraadpleegd was, en terecht! Iedere keer op Wikipedia het woord “hacker” (goed volk) vervangen door “kraker” of “cracker” (slecht volk) betekent dat er maatschappelijk iets niet deugt qua beeldvorming. De oppervlakkige pers en politiek snappen de definities niet en besmeuren de faam van hackers. Zo kwam ik tot de conclusie dat “The New Hacker’s Dictionary” weer terug moest op het web. Ondanks dat auteur Eric Raymond af en toe bekritiseerd wordt en ondanks dat ik het een slecht idee vindt om permanent een “Riot gun” in je kofferbak te hebben is deze actie een oprechte ode aan zijn enorme inspanningen.

Weet je wat een “hackintosh” is? Of “leet”? “warez d00dz”?, “lamers”, “Phreaks”, “IANAL” (I Am Not A Lawyer)? Honderden bladzijden, vermakelijk maar met een serieuze ondertoon.

Voor nu volstaat het om hier de definities van Cracker en Hacker te dumpen:

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hacker n.

[originally, someone who makes furniture with an axe] 1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. 2. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming. 3. A person capable of appreciating hack value. 4. A person who is good at programming quickly. 5. An expert at a particular program, or one who frequently does work using it or on it; as in ‘a Unix hacker’. (Definitions 1 through 5 are correlated, and people who fit them congregate.) 6. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example. 7. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations. 8. [deprecated] A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence ‘password hacker’, ‘network hacker’. The correct term for this sense is cracker.

The term ‘hacker’ also tends to connote membership in the global community defined by the net (see the network. For discussion of some of the basics of this culture, see the How To Become A Hacker FAQ. It also implies that the person described is seen to subscribe to some version of the hacker ethic (see hacker ethic).

It is better to be described as a hacker by others than to describe oneself that way. Hackers consider themselves something of an elite (a meritocracy based on ability), though one to which new members are gladly welcome. There is thus a certain ego satisfaction to be had in identifying yourself as a hacker (but if you claim to be one and are not, you’ll quickly be labeled bogus). See also geek, wannabee.

This term seems to have been first adopted as a badge in the 1960s by the hacker culture surrounding TMRC and the MIT AI Lab. We have a report that it was used in a sense close to this entry’s by teenage radio hams and electronics tinkerers in the mid-1950s.

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cracker n.

One who breaks security on a system. Coined ca. 1985 by hackers in defense against journalistic misuse of hacker (q.v., sense 8). An earlier attempt to establish ‘worm’ in this sense around 1981-82 on Usenet was largely a failure.

Use of both these neologisms reflects a strong revulsion against the theft and vandalism perpetrated by cracking rings. The neologism “cracker” in this sense may have been influenced not so much by the term “safe-cracker” as by the non-jargon term “cracker”, which in Middle English meant an obnoxious person (e.g., “What cracker is this same that deafs our ears / With this abundance of superfluous breath?” – Shakespeare’s King John, Act II, Scene I) and in modern colloquial American English survives as a barely gentler synonym for “white trash”.

While it is expected that any real hacker will have done some playful cracking and knows many of the basic techniques, anyone past larval stage is expected to have outgrown the desire to do so except for immediate, benign, practical reasons (for example, if it’s necessary to get around some security in order to get some work done).

Thus, there is far less overlap between hackerdom and crackerdom than the mundane reader misled by sensationalistic journalism might expect. Crackers tend to gather in small, tight-knit, very secretive groups that have little overlap with the huge, open poly-culture this lexicon describes; though crackers often like to describe themselves as hackers, most true hackers consider them a separate and lower form of life. Ethical considerations aside, hackers figure that anyone who can’t imagine a more interesting way to play with their computers than breaking into someone else’s has to be pretty losing. Some other reasons crackers are looked down on are discussed in the entries on cracking and phreaking. See also samurai, dark-side hacker, and hacker ethic. For a portrait of the typical teenage cracker, see warez d00dz.

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