This is a series about creating mathematical curves in BricsCAD (and AutoCAD).
Part 0, just hackish with a spreadsheet, result driven.
Part 1, the math, understanding ways to iterate.
Part 2, the coding, techniques available.
THIS ARTICLE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. YOUR POSITIVE INPUT IS APPRECIATED.
In part 1 the mathematics are explained. It turns out to be a solid base with a very functional algorithm in order to draw approximated curves.
This pages offers clues for coding. I’ve tried several concepts as described in part 1. After ending up writing a few hundred lines of code I decided to stop because a proper solution is simply a lot of work in unpaid time that lacks.
That is not the complete story, after tinkering, I also came to the conclusion that using a non uniform rational basis spline, or NURBS , or spline is a proper alternative after all and, combined with the theories in part 1, it offers best possibilities (and consumes a lot of my time).
Does it mean that this page is worthless? No, it offers additional insights that you will not find on the net in a structured way.
Making a NURBS
Ways in Lisp
In Lisp there are several ways to create a NURBS or spline:
- Very easy with (command “._spline” …), not recommended for production environments.
- The object-way with (vla-AddSpline …), not discussed further.
- The old fashioned way, using (entmake …), discussed here.
“Entmake” that spline
Consider the following code:
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(setq point-list '((0 0) (1 1) (2 0) (3 -2) (4 0))) (entmake (append (list '(0 . "SPLINE") '(100 . "AcDbEntity") '(100 . "AcDbSpline") '(70 . 4) '(71 . 3) (cons 74 (length point-list)) ) (mapcar '(lambda (xy) (cons 11 xy)) point-list) ) )
The first line is paste-able on the CAD command line as:
(setq point-list '( (0 0) (1 1) (2 0) (3 -2) (4 0)))
The second part as:
(entmake (append (list '(0 . "SPLINE") '(100 . "AcDbEntity") '(100 . "AcDbSpline") '(70 . 4) '(71 . 3) (cons 74 (length point-list))) (mapcar '(lambda (xy) (cons 11 xy)) point-list)))
Going through the code:
- “70 . 4” is DXF code 70 for spline type 4, i.e. “Rational spline”.
- “71 . 3” means degree 3.
- There are 5 points, so: “74 . 5”.
- “(mapcar “(lambda (xy) (cons 11 xy)) point-list)” returns a list with code “11” sublists: “((11 0 0) (11 1 1) (11 2 0) (11 3 -2) (11 4 0))”
That is all it takes to create a spline. Code “11” points are fit-points, going through the curve, what we want. This could also be “10” for control-points.
There is much more to be aware of, see DXF-codes for Splines. and more on NURBS at Wikipedia.
How to feed mathematical functions to the program?
We’ll start with a few examples.
Let’s say, we have a function . What we do is put it in a file with extension fun, for example: curve.fun. The filename should represent what you define in the file.
Please, do yourself a favour, use a suitable text editor like notepad++ and mark your code as Lisp during editing.
What is in the file? First of all: Valid Lisp code, more on that later. What is needed is:
- A safety factor to make sure the curve is within the deviation limits: fuzzy
- A maximum deviation: dev
- A tolerance as a part of dev: tol
- A start value for x: xmin
- An end value for x: xmax
- Divide calculations: xdiv
- The function: fx
A valid file contains:
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(tol 0.2) (fuzzy 0.000) (dev 0.05) (xmin 0) (xmax 2) (xdiv 1) (fx (* x x))
That should be clear, setq assigns a value to a variable. What can go wrong? The number of opening parenthesis should be equal to the number of closing parenthesis. That is the number 1 error.
Defining your functions
Here is a list of some arithmetic functions…
|(+ [number number] …)||Add|
|(- [number number] …)||Subtract|
|(* [number number] …)||Multiply|
|(/ [number number] …)||Divide|
|(~ int)||Bitwise NOT|
|(abs number)||Absolute value|
|(atan num1 [num2] )||Arctangent of num1 or num1/num2|
|(exp number)||“e” raised to power|
|(expt base power)||Base raised to power|
|(fix number)||Nearest smaller integer|
|(float number)||Number to real|
|(gcd int1 int2)||Greatest common denominator|
|(log number)||Natural log of number|
|(logand int int …)||Logical bitwise AND|
|(logior int int …)||Logical bitwise inclusive OR|
|(lsh int numbers)||Logical bitwise shift by numbers|
|(max number number …)||Largest of numbers|
|(min number number …)||Smallest of numbers|
|(sqrt number)||Square root|
- Note that 6 is an integer and 6.0 is a real.
- Angles are in radians, 2*pi radians is 360 degrees.
- Expressions are evaluated inside out: (than-this (first-this))
The line containing a function, (fx (* x x)), is a list in a list. The examples below are like (fx (example)).
- (* x x)
- (expt x 2)
- (+ (* x x) (* 6.0 x) -2.5)
- (- (sin x) (* x (cos x)))
- (abs x)
- (int x)
- (sqrt (expt x 2))
How configuration data is handled
What curve does is very basic: It reads lines from the files an interpretes them when they are in list format. A bit more in detail: the line “(xmax 3.2)” is a string. By using the read function, the line is converted to a list. From that point, further processing in Lisp is possible with a set statement (not setq).
The math part describes a way to calculate valid fit points by iterating checks based on core CAD-Lisp functions. In addition, it is possible to use a set of curve measurement Lisp functions – link broken, cache:
|(vlax-curve-getArea curve-obj)||Returns the area inside the curve|
|(vlax-curve-getDistAtParam curve-objparam)||Returns the length of the curve's segment from the curve's beginning to the specified point|
|(vlax-curve-getDistAtPoint curve-objpoint)||Returns the length of the curve's segment between the curve's start point and the specified point|
|(vlax-curve-getEndParam curve-obj)||Returns the parameter of the endpoint of the curve|
|(vlax-curve-getEndPoint curve-obj)||Returns the endpoint (in WCS coordinates) of the curve|
|(vlax-curve-getParamAtPoint curve-objparam)||Returns the distance along the curve from the beginning of the curve to the location of the specified parameter|
|(vlax-curve-getParamAtPoint curve-objpoint)||Returns the parameter of the curve at the point|
|(vlax-curve-getPointAtDist curve-objdist)||Returns the point (in WCS coordinates) along a curve at the distance specified by the user|
|(vlax-curve-getPointAtParam curve-objparam)||Determines the point on the curve that corresponds to the param parameter and returns the point|
|(vlax-curve-getStartParam curve-obj)||Returns the start parameter on the curve|
|(vlax-curve-getStartPoint curve-obj)||Returns the start point (in WCS coordinates) of the curve|
|(vlax-curve-isClosed curve-obj)||Determines if the specified curve is closed (i.e., start point is same as endpoint)|
|(vlax-curve-isPeriodic curve-obj)||Determines if the specified curve has an infinite range in both directions and there is a period value dT, such that there is a point on curve at (u + dT) = point on curve (u), for any parameter u|
|(vlax-curve-isPlanarcurve-obj)||Determines if there is a plane that contains the curve|
|(vlax-curve-getClosestPointTo curve-obj givenPnt [extend])||Returns the point (in WCS coordinates) on a curve that is nearest to the specified point|
|(vlax-curve-getClosestPointToProjectioncurve-obj givenPnt normal [extend])||Returns the point (in WCS coordinates) on a curve that is nearest to the specified point|
|(vlax-curve-getFirstDeriv curve-obj param)||Returns the first derivative (in WCS coordinates) of a curve at the specified location|
|(vlax-curve-getSecondDerivcurve-obj param)||Returns the second derivative (in WCS coordinates) of a curve at the specified location|
In BricsCAD these functions are also available on OS-X and Linux.